History

Get To Know Our History

WHO WE ARE: Ancient History:

Present day Yorubaland had been inhabited since the 4th century BC by people who were not originally called Yoruba, but ‘Aku’ or ‘Anago’. Archeological findings, radiocarbon dating of excavated artifacts and traditional Yoruba oral history, as encapsulated in Ifa, our revered body of knowledge and divination, confirm the existence of people in this region for several millennia.

Yoruba spiritual heritage maintains that the Yoruba ethnic groups are a unique people who were originally created at Ile-Ife.

Many legends and myths surround the origin of Ife, and of the Yoruba. While Ife’s place in antiquity cannot be disputed, one thing agreeable to all Yoruba descendants is that they all left from Ife, after the Great Dispersal (Akinjogbin and Ayandele in ‘Yorubaland Up To 1800’ – pg 124 of Obaro Ikime’s Groundwork of Nigerian History), in succeeding waves, over a period of time.

The self-propagated mythology of the origin of the Yoruba, who refer to themselves as “Omo O’odua” (Children of Oduduwa), revolves around the mythical figure of Oduduwa or O’odua . The meaning of the name may be translated as “the spiritual one (“O/Ohun”) who created the knowledge (“odu”) of character (“iwa”).”

Oduduwa thereafter had sons, daughters and grandchildren who went on, after the Great Dispersal which commenced from ‘Ita Ijero’ in Ile-Ife, to found their own kingdoms and empires, namely Ila-Orangun, Owu, Ketu, Sabe, Popo, Oyo and Benin.

Oranmiyan, Oduduwa’s last born, was one of his father’s principal ministers and overseer of the nascent Edo empire after Oduduwa granted the plea of the Edo people for his governance. When Oranmiyan decided to go back to Ile Ife after a period of service in Benin, he left behind a child named Eweka that he had, in the interim, with an indigenous princess. The young boy went on to become the first legitimate ruler of the second Edo dynasty (After the Ogiso period) that has ruled what is now Benin from that day to this.

Oranmiyan later found the Oyo Empire (one of the most powerful of Africa’s medieval states prior to its collapse in the 19th century). It stretched at its zenith, from the western banks of the river Niger to the Eastern banks of the river Volta, and down to the Atlantic ocean, defining the rough extent of present day Yorubaland, and the subject of our current agitation for the establishment of a customary law government of the indigenous people of the ODUDUWA NATION to be used as a vehicle to assert our right to self-determination as a people.

GEOGRAPHY:

The entirety of Yorubaland lies almost completely within the trough encompassed by the River Niger, to the north and east, River Volta to the west and the long stretch of the Atlantic Ocean to the south. This geographic space more or less roughly describes the totality of the area occupied by the people over the extent of their known history.

From the west at the borders of Togo, it stretches through Benin Republic to the east, at Warri in the east in the creeks of the Niger delta (between Longitude 2°30′E and 6°30′E). The upward sweep commences from the Atlantic ocean coastline up to the immediate westerly bend of the Niger river, (below the confluence) (between latitude 6°N and 9°N).

This is properly described in this classic quotation from Bishop Ajayi crowther’s letter to Thomas J. Hutchinson, Esq., Her Brittanic Majesty’s Consul for the Bight of Biafra and the Island of Fernando Po, in an appendix to a book entitled “Impressions of Western Africa” Longmans, Green & Co., 1858 …

”This part of the country of which Lagos is the sea port, is generally known as the Yoruba country, extending from the Bight to within two or three days journey (as at 1858) to the banks of the Niger. This country comprises many tribes governed by their own chiefs and having their own laws. At one time they were all tributaries to one Sovereign, the King of Yoruba (under Alafin Ojigi, pg174) 7 including Benin on the east, and Dahomey on the west, but are now independent.”

No other description better captures the ambient area of the subject of our current agitation for the establishment of a customary law government of the indigenous people of the ODUDUWA NATION to be used as a vehicle to assert our right to self-determination as a people.

THE PEOPLE:

The Yoruba are the largest homogeneous people in Africa. They inhabit a continuous, unbroken territory, speak the same language, share the same culture, custom and world believe. They are urban dwellers who have built many towns, cities, kingdoms and an empire before the advent of the Europeans. (Akinjogbin and Ayandele in ‘Yorubaland Up To 1800’ – pg 121 of Obaro Ikime’s ‘Groundwork of Nigerian History’)

They can broadly be classified or grouped according to the dialectal group to which they belong, the subgroup of migration from Ife, or the kingdom/empire to whom they owed allegiance.

 

The dispersal of the various prince-headed groups from Ile-Ife to found new kingdoms of their own (situated in late 8th Century or early 9th century), following their father, Oduduwa’s instruction, was in a series of pre-planned, organized emigrations that historians have placed in four groups, namely, those who went North-westwards – Owu, Sabe, Oyo, etc.; those who went South-westwards – Egba, Egbado, Ketu, Awori, etc., those who went Eastwards – Ekiti, Owo, Ondo, Benin, Akoko, etc., and those who stayed in the neighborhood like the Ijesha. These migrations resulted in the foundations of many new kingdoms. All the most important kingdoms (26, according to some accounts) have rulers who were either sons or grandsons of Oduduwa.

But, taken broadly, the following had been the natural grouping of the people, surviving from their earliest history, to the present:

 

1.      IFE: Ode-Omu, ipetumodu, Ikire, Apomu, Oke-igbo, etc;

2.      OYO: Ibarapa (Saki, Okehom Iganna, iseyin, Iwawin, Eruwa, Iberekodo,etc); Ekun Osi, Igboho, Ikoyi, Kiisi, Ilorin, Irawo, Iwere, Ogbomoso, Oy, Igbeti, etc.); Igbonna (Omuaran, Isanlu, Odo-Ere, etc.); Okun (Mopa, Kabba, Egbe, Bunu, etc); Ibolo ( Ede, Iresa, Ofa, Oyan, Okuku, Ikirun, Osogbo,Ido, Ilobu, Ejigbo, Ede, etc.); Epo (Idode, Masifa, Ife Odan,Fiditi, Iwo, Ilora, Ago-Oja (New Oyo), Awe, Owu (Orile), Ibadan, Ijaye)

3.      EGBA: Agbeyin (Ake, Ijeun,Kemta, Iporo, Ibara, Owu); Oke-Ona (Oko, Ikereku, Ikija, Idomapa, Odo, Podo); Agura (Agura, Ilugun, Ibadan (later Epo Oya), Ifaye, Ika, Ojo, Ilawo), Ifo, Owode, etc.

4.      IJEBU: Ode, Imupa; Ososa; Igbo; Ago-Iwoye; Imusin (Ilare,Lewunren, Sagunsen, Itamarun, Ikatun, Ikasi, Igbagee, Iru, Isosu, Abigi, Esure, Igbodu, Imomo, Eruwon, Ikija, etc.);Okun -Owa (Okun-Owa, Iilokun, Odolowu, Odoeebolu, Odo-Neta, Odo-Kisi, Odo-Neji, Itun-Ado); Odo-Ogbolu (Odo-Ogboluti,Ifiyan, Idena, Odo-Aganmayan, Odogbon, Odo-Aloro, Odoyangan, Ikoa, Oriwo, Ipebi, Idofe, Odomuja); Ayepe (Afo, Aba, Idobiri, Ilakan, Odolubianwa, Adigolu, Owu, Eyinwa, Ijesa) . (Source: History of the Ijebu by Moses Botu Okubote, pg 5)

5.      REMO: Ofin, Ilisan, Isara, Imesi, Ikenne, Iperu, Ikorodu, OdoRaselu, Odo Pinyenwa, Odo-Ile, Olu Imota, Ode Lemo, Olu Ogere, Akaka, Emuren, Irolu, Isiwo, Idarika. (Source: History of the Ijebu by Moses Botu Okubote, pg 24)

6.      ONDO: Ore, Odigbo, Atijere, Ile-Oluji, Idanre, Owena, Obadore, Ajebandele, Oboto, Agbabu, Atantan, Igunshin, Odo-Owo, Bagbe, Unorun, Koseu, Tekuile, Laje, Wasimi, Kajola, Lamudifa, Fagbo, Foiku, Asewele, Okegun, Baguwa, Ulu-Uha, Bolorunduro,etc

7.      IKALE: Okitipupa, Irele, Ilutuntun, Igbotako, Ayede, Ode-Aye, etc.

8.      ILAJE: Igbokoda, Igbo, Mahintedo, Araromi, Ori-oke, Zion Pepe, etc.Atijere;

9.       EKITI: Ado, Ikere, Ilawe, Aramoko, Iyin, Ido, Oke-Imesi, Iworoko, Efon-Alaye, Ijero, Ikogosi, Ijan, Ise, Emure, Omuo, etc;

10.   AKOKO: Ikare, Oke-Agbe, Arigidi, Oka, Isua, Ikeran, etc. Major Akoko settlements include Ikare, Oka, Oba, Ikun, Arigidi, Ogbagi, Okeagbe, Ikaram, Ibaram, Iyani, Akungba, Erusu, Ajowa, Akunu, Gedegede, Isua, Auga, Ikakumo, Supare, Epinmi, Ipe, Ifira, Ise, Iboropa, Irun, Afin, Igashi, Sosan, Ipesi, Etioro, Ayegunle and Oyin;

11.  IJESA: Ilesa,Osu, Iperindo, Erin, ijebu-Ijesa, Ibokun, ‘Osogbo’, etc;

12.  AWORI: Ota, Sango, Ojo, Agbara, Iba, Alaba, Iseri-Olofin, Idimu, Igbesa, Iru, Agege, Ikeja, Mushin, etc;

13.  EGBADO: Ayetoro, Ado-Odo, Owode, Idi-Iroko, Ilaro, etc.;

14.  IFE: Ile-Ife, Modakeke, Ipetumodu, Gbongan, Ode-Omu, Ikire, Apomu, Oke-Igbo, etc;

15.  KETU: Orile-Ketu, Sakete, Pobe, Paraku, Dase, Niki, etc.;

16.  SABE:

17.  POPO:

18.  OWU: Orile-Owu, Owu-Ijebu, Most others are scattered. The bulk are domiciled in Abeokuta.

 

HOW WE CAME TO BE WHERE WE ARE

The Fulani Jihads Against Yoruba Land.

By 1824 the Fulani invasion of Yoruba land had started in earnest, after usurping power from Afonja , the Are-Ona-Kakanfo, in Ilorin. Like a blieskreig they attacked, sacked the city of Oyo and set it in flames. For the next 35 years the war was fought at various fronts culminating in the final humiliating defeat of the Fulani at Inisa near Osogbo by the Ibadan and allied forces in 1835. But while the war lasted many souls were lost. Many cities, towns and villages were burnt, many atrocities were committed by the Fulani against the Yoruba under the disguise of spreading Islam. With the Quran in one hand, the sword on the other, many lives were either destroyed or irreversibly traumatized. Of particular mention in this regard is the siege of Ofa where captives we lined up and slaughtered, with blood dripping into a bowl, like lambs to the slaughter!

The Coming of the Europeans

The coming of the Europeans (English) to present day Nigeria and their surreptitious (sometimes intimidating) relationships with the peoples, was through Yorubaland in the nineteenth century.

However, history records that the Yoruba were never engaged in war with the British (except at Ilorin, under the Fulani usurpers, and at Ijebuland over rights of way for traders). So we were never conquered. But went voluntarily to sign treaties of cooperation with the British.

There was never an agreement, written or verbal, committing each of the various national, sub national groups, empires or kingdoms to be an integral part of a later to be formed Nigerian nation, state or country. What were signed and agreed with the British were treaties of protection and co-operation (see appendixes) (sometimes forced or coaxed out of the hapless natives by intimidation or force of arms). Their sovereignties were never signed away. The treaty with the Ibadan semi-autonomous state, 15th August 1893, is an example.

 

 

1.       THE TREATY OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP AND COMMERCE IN YORUBALAND.

Treaty of peace, friendship and commerce between the ALAFIN of Oyo, the Balogun , the Maye , the Abese , the Agbakin, the Otun Bale of Ibadan ; the Owa the Ilesa , the Owore of Otun ,the Ajero of Ijero , the Olojudo of Ido, the Seriki of Ilesa,the Owoni of Ife, the Obalufe , the Obajiwo ,the Obaloran , the Ajaruwa ,the Arode, the Arisanre ,the Balogun of Ife; the Ogunsuwa of Modakeke, the Balogun and Otun of Modakeke ,the Awujale of Ijebu and the Balogun of Ijebu .

 

Whereas the Kings, Chiefs , Baloguns and Chiefs above enumerated, Parties to this Treaty , and to the conditions and articles to agreement hereinafter set forth, profess to be earnestly desirous to put a stop to the devastating war which has for years been waged in their own and adjoining countries , and to put a stop to the devastating war which has for years been waged in their own and adjoining countries , and to secure the blessings of lasting peace to themselves and their peoples, and have appealed by their envoys and messengers duly accredited to His Excellency the Governor of the Colony of Lagos as representing Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen to mediate between them, and to arbitrate , and determine such terms and conditions as shall secure a just and honorable peace to the contending parties

Treaty, dated 4th day of June 1886.

 

2.       THE TREATY OF OYO

Treaty between Adeyemi, Alafin of Oyo and head of Yoruba-land, and her majesty, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland

 

Signed and sealed at Oyo this 23rd day of July ,1888.

 

 

3.       IJEBU TREATY

SIGNING OF THE AGREEMENT WITH THE COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION AFTER DEFEAT

 

The aforesaid agreement was signed in Lagos on the 21st January, 1892 between Gilbert Thomas carter Esq. C.M.G, governor and commander in charge of the colony of Lagos on behalf of Queen Victoria, titular head of Great Britain and Ireland, the Indian Prime Minister, her Lieutenants and heirs on one hand, and the Awujale and the Ijebu elders on behalf of themselves and the generations after them.

 

Signed in Lagos on the 21st January, 1892

 

 

 

4.       OYO

 

TREATY OF PEACE AND RIGHT OF WAY TO TRADE

Treaty made at Oyo in the Yoruba country , this 3rd day of February, in the year 1893, between his Excellency Gilbert Thomas Carter ,Esq ., Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George , Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Lagos , For and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ire land , Empress of India ,etc., Her Heirs and Successors on the one Part, and the undersigned King ALAFIN of Oyo and Head of Yoruba- Land , for and on behalf of his Heirs and Successors , on the other part.

            This 3rd day of February, in the year 1893,

 

5.       IBADAN

 

TREATY OF ADMINISTRATION AND SUZEREINTY OVER SOME TOWNS

 

AGREEMENT made at Ibadan this 15th day of August , 1893 ,between His Excellency George Chardin Denton, Esq., Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Acting –Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Lagos ,For and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India her Heirs and successors of the one part , and the undersigned Bale and Authorities of Ibadan for and on behalf of their heirs and of the people of Ibadan of the other part.

 

Done at Ibadan this fifteenth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and ninety three (1893).

 

6.       IBADAN (RAILWAY)

TREATY ON RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION

This Indenture, made the 14th day December 1900 , between His Excellency Sir George Chardin Denton ,Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George Lieutenant –Governor of the Colony of Lagos ,for and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland ,Empress of India , her heirs and successors of the one part, and the Basorun and Authorities of Ibadan for and on

Made the 14th day December 1900

 

 

 

7.       EGBA KINGDOM

TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND COMMERCE

 

Between His Excellency Gilbert Thomas Carter, Esq., Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor and Commander –in – Chief of the Colony of Lagos, for and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, etc., her heirs and successors on the one part, and the undersigned king (Alake) and Authorities of Abeokuta representing the Egba Kingdom, for and on behalf of their heirs and successors on the other part.

Made at Abeokuta in the Egba country this 18th ( eighteenth ) day of January in the year 1893.

8.       EGBA (BOUNDARIES)

TREATY ON EGBA – LAGOS BRITISH PROTECTORATE BOUNDARIES

Agreement entered into at Abeokuta between His Excellency Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter, Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Micheal and Saint George, Governor and Commander –in-chief of the Colony of Lagos, and the King and Authorities of the Egba nation.

Whereas it is expedient to define the boundaries between the Egba country and the territories bordering on, or under the British Protectorate of Lagos , we ,the undersigned Governor of Lagos and the king and Authorities of the Egba Nation residing at Abeokuta, agree as follows:

 

Signed at Abeokuta this fifth day of January, 1894.

 

9.       ABEOKUTA (RAILWAY)

TREATY ON RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION

Agreement made this 21st day February, 1899, between His Excellence George Chardin Denton,Esq.,Companion of the most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Acting- Governor and Commander –in-chief of the Colony of Lagos for and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland ,Empress of India , her heirs and successors, of the one part and the Alake and Authorities of the Egba nation for and on behalf of themselves , their heirs and successors , and the Egba nation of the other part.

 

Signed at Abeokuta this fifth day of January, 1894.

 

 

 

10.   LAGOS TREATY OF ANTI-SLAVERY ACTS

 

The Treaty Between Great Britain and Lagos, 1 January 1852 was an agreement between the United Kingdom (represented by Commodore Henry William Bruce, Commander of the British Navy’s West Africa Station and John Beecroft, British Consul in the Bights of Benin and Biafra) and Oba Akitoye, the newly installed Oba of Lagos onBritish anti-slavery measures and naval bombardment of Lagos in 1851

 

Lagos, 1 January 1852 

 

11.   LAGOS TREATY OF CESSION

 

TREATY OF CESSION OF LAGOS ISLAND AND PORTS TO THE BRITISH

Treaty between Norman B. Bedingfeld, Commander of Her Majesty’s ship Prometheus, and Senior Officer of the Bights Division, and William McCoskry, Esquire, Her Britannic Majesty’s Acting Consul, on the part of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, and Docemo, King of Lagos, on the part of himself and Chiefs.

 

Signed at Lagos, August 6, 1861

Following threats from Kosoko and the French who were positioned at Wydah, a decision was made by Lord Palmerston (British Prime Minister) who noted “the expediency of losing no time in assuming the formal Protectorate of Lagos”. King Dosunmu resisted the terms of the treaty but under the threat to unleash violence on Lagos by Commander Bedingfield, Dosunmu relented and signed the treaty. This was a damning treaty, signed under duress, intimidation and coersion. It was totally unfair and unjust as it purported to cede to the British , forever:

 “give, transfer, and by these presents grant and confirm unto the Queen of Great Britain, her heirs, and successors forever, the port and Island of Lagos with all the rights, profits, territories, and appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging, and as well the profits and revenue as the direct, full, and absolute dominion and sovereignty of the said port, island, and premises, with all royalties thereof, freely, fully and entirely and absolutely”.

  

12.   IJESA

 

ENACTMENT FOR THE ABOLITION OF HUMAN SACRIFICES IN THE IJESA COUNTRIES

 

Whereas the practice of immolating human beings is cruel, barbarous, futile and unjust in the eyes of all civilized nations and right-minded persons; and whereas the said practice has fallen into disuse amongst the ijesas, and the present time appears opportune for its total abolition in the ijesa country; and whereas the ijesas are under a deep and lasting obligation to his excellency the governor of lagos for having established peace between them and their late enemies, the ibadans, and for having thereby secured the independence of the ijesa country;…

Given under our hands and seals this 29th day of September, 1886.

 

13.   EKITI

 

ENACTMENT FOR THE ABOLITION OF HUMAN SACRIFICE IN THE EKITI COUNTRIES

 

Whereas the practice of immolation human beings is cruel ,barbarous , futile and unjust in the eyes of all civilized nation s and right –minded persons , and where as the said practice has fallen into disuse in the Ekiti countries ,and present time appears opportune for its total abolition in those countries ; and whereas the Ekitis are under a deep and lasting obligation to His Excellency of the Governor of Lagos for having established peace between them and their enemies the Ibadans ,and for having thereby secured the independence of the said Ekiti countries;…

Given under our hands and seals this 29th day of September, 1886.

 

14.   IFE

ABOLITION OF THE CUSTOM OF HUMAN SACRIFICE BY THE COUNCIL OF IFE

 

Whereas the practice of immolating human beings is cruel,barbarous , futile and unjust; and whereas His Excellency the Governor of Lagos ,to whom the ife nation is greatly indebted for having magnanimously mediated between them and their enemies ,will be pleased to hear that the ife nation has abolished the said detestable practice; and whereas the council of ife has already undertaken through its representatives at kiriji to abolish the said abominable practice;…

 

15.   KINGDOM OF ILARO

PROCLAMATION OF 13TH AUGUST, 1891

 

By his Excellency George Chardin –Denton, Esq., C.M.G., Acting Governor of Lagos, etc.

GEORGE C. DENTON, (L.S.), Acting Governor.

 

Whereas her majesty has been advised that it is for the interests of the people of the colony and protectorate of Lagos, and also of the people of the kingdom of Ilaro that the said kingdom should be transferred to the government of her majesty and that her majesty should assume the protectorate thereof.

13TH AUGUST, 1891

 

AT NO TIME DID WE AGREE WITH THE BRITISH, BASED ON THE TREATIES SIGNED, TO COMMIT US TO AN ALIEN UNION MADE UP OF INCOMPATIBLE BEDFELLOWS, AND TO BE LATER CHRISTENED NIGERIA!

Therefore, we are not Nigerians, were never Nigerians by origin, custom and culture, and from henceforth, do not seek to continue as Nigerians.

The influence of the British Empire on the territories which now form Nigeria began with prohibition of slave trade to British subjects in 1807. The resulting collapse of African slave trade led to the decline and eventual collapse of the Oyo Empire. British influence in the Niger area increased gradually over the 19th century, but Britain did not effectively occupy the area until 1885, and then under competition from France and Germany. The colonial period proper in Nigeria lasted from 1900 to 1960. In 1900, the Niger Coast Protectorate and some territories of the Royal Niger Company were united to form the Southern Nigeria Protectorate, while other Royal Niger Company territories became the Northern Nigeria Protectorate. In 1914, the Northern and Southern Nigeria Protectorates were unified into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria while maintaining considerable regional autonomy among the three major regions. Progressive constitutions after World War II provided for increasing representation and electoral government by Nigerians. In October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained independence.

The Yorubas never wanted to be part of Nigeria.

 

 

Notes on Why the Obstacle to Yoruba Development is Nigeria

 

1. Although some states like Kano have a vibrant trade-based economy (and the Kannywood‘ local entertainment sector is booming), economic output in the Northern states is mostly agrarian. On the other hand, the services sector – banks, telecoms, hospitality, trade – are mostly concentrated in the South especially Yorubaland,. Of the 21 commercial banks in the country, only one is owned by and headquartered in the North.

 

2.         Just under 60 years ago, the homeland  was a region known as the “Yoruba Western Region”, with coordinated policies uniformity across its provinces, but it has since been partitioned by the Nigeria government into Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, parts of Kwara, Kogi, Edo and Delta States without political, social or economic integration among its people.

 

3.         60 years ago, there was free education in the whole of the Yoruba Western Region, now divided into approximately ten (10) states. Today and since 1966, education has ceased to be free in all the Yoruba states. The standard has gone down well below what it was then.

 

4.         60 years ago, there was free and qualitative health care for all Yoruba citizens and residents throughout the Yoruba Western Region. Today and since 1966, there has been nothing like free healthcare anymore. Ordinary mosquitoes kill more people in Yorubaland than cancer and HIV combined.

 

5.         60 years ago, Yoruba who travelled abroad for further studies or for a visit always returned home to contribute to the development of their region. However, since 1966, the best of the Yoruba brains in all fields of human endeavors have relocated and remained abroad to work and most of them are doing mundane jobs in the United States and Europe.

           

6. Even in the South, Lagos and to a lesser extent, the four major oil-producing states, account for the bulk of economic output in Nigeria. Lagos, where most banks, financial institutions, telecoms firms, oil companies and other private sector organizations are headquartered could be Africa‘s fifth largest economy, if it were a separate country. As an outlier, it is the only self-sufficient state out of 36, able to generate over 50% of its revenues from internal sources far in excess of  its monthly allocations from the center.

 

7.         The fiscal conditions of the colonial administration in the Northern administration were dire and it survived only with the help of the imperial grant-in-aid. By 1912, the imperial hand out to the North was approximately £314,500.00. The imperial hand out to the Northern Province through the expenditure of the British taxpayers‘ money in financing a colonial territory was a contradiction of the British Colonial policy, enunciated sixty [60] years before by Earl Grey. This protocol stipulated that ―the surest test for the soundness of measures for improvement at an uncivilized people is that they should be self-supporting‖. [Grey, Earl. 2010. The north and the rest of the country are really slowing us down.

 

8.         Alhaji Ahmadu Bello strongly objected to the 1953 motion for independence moved by Mr. Anthony Enahoro. Alhaji Ahmadu Bello moved a counter motion, arguing that granting Nigeria Self-rule then would amount to being re-colonized, this time, by the Southerners.

 Alhaji Ahmadu Bello was very bitter when he was quoted as claiming that the mistake of 1914 has now come to the fore and called for the reversal of the amalgamation [Aderemi, 2013, p.15]. In one of his essays published in 1948 Alhaji Tafawa Balewa wrote ―our concept of Nigeria is, East for the Easterners, North for the Northerners and West for the Westerners and Nigeria for all of us. [Aderemi, 2013, p. 175].

So, let us keep things that way as all nationalities in Nigeria are now agitating!

 

9.         The country Nigeria is founded and sustained on fraud: In 1973, Niger Republic had a land mass of 1,266,700 sq km,with a population of over 5m people and Chad with 1,259,200 sq km had over 4m people. So, how could the North of Nigeria that shares boundaries with Niger and Chad, with a [claimed] territorial expanse of 786,754 sq km have over 75 million people? [Fayemi, 2013, p.27]. This reeks of politics of territorial expanse and not a demonstration of a commitment to the Nigerian nation.

 

Affirmations:

We affirm that the Yoruba can hold their own in any field of endeavor and in any multinational gathering of peoples as an equal among nations.

To date the list of records set and broken by the Yoruba is endless; the Yoruba built the first television station in Africa; the first stadium; the largest industrial conglomerate of companies (Oodua Investments), the tallest building in Africa (The Cocoa House, Ibadan) (1965), the largest single estate of houses (Jakande Estates), Africa’s first black Nobel laureate (Wole Soyinka), Africa’s first 25 storey structure, the first lawyer in Nigeria ( Sapara William –1879 ), the richest man of African descent (2009) (Dehinde Fernandez) etc, etc.

We affirm that the escape of the Yoruba from underdevelopment is easier to achieve independent of other nations in the Nigeria polity. Of a fact, the Yoruba have always viewed these forced bedmates as albatrosses on our neck without whom we would have fared better.

We affirm that the Yoruba seek to move at a pace contiguous with the phenomena of their history, for to do otherwise is tantamount to self-immolation and group suicide, and an everlasting sentence of the unborn generation to perpetual underdevelopment and the backwaters of world history.

We seek to empirically determine the kinetics of a free Yoruba country, to assess where the boundless energy and highly resourceful intelligence of the citizenry would have catapulted them otherwise, if we are on our own.

We affirm that the eventual, ultimate and irreversible disintegration of Nigeria will be a blessing for the progress of Yorubaland and its citizens.